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This page contains information about:: Italian Conversations, Dates in Italian, Irregular Verbs, Reflexive Verbs, and some Italian Expressions.


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Level I

Lesson1: Italian Present Tense, Plural, Articles, Italian Numbers, Alphabet

Lesson2: Italian Irregular Verbs, Italian Reflexive Verbs

Lesson3: Italian Past Participle, Comparative, Superlative, Demonstrative Pronouns

Lesson4: Italian Past Tense, Present Perfect, Interrogative, Possessive, Pronouns

Lesson5: Italian Prepositions, Model Verbs, Italian Future Tense

Lesson6: Italian Adjectives, Negation, Past Perfect in Italian

Lesson7: Italian Gerund Imperative and Adverbs

Level II

Lesson1: Italian Past Tense, Imperfetto, Perfect, and Remote Past

Lesson2: Conditional, Italian Idioms and Proverbs

Lesson3: Subjunctive, More Italian Idioms, Proverbs, and Essential Dictionary

Lesson4: Italian Conjunctions, Italian Ci and Ne, and More Italian Vocabulary

Lesson5: Surviving in Italy, Eating, Drinking in Italy. More Italian Words To Know.

Lesson6: Getting Around Italy Transport, Italian Trains, Buses, and Traffic

Lesson7: Italian False Friends, Wrong Italian Words in English

Italian Expressions

Emergency in Italy

Hotel, Museum, Guided Tour, Shopping

Sentence Quiz

How to Learn a Language


Italian Lesson 2

Italian Singular to Plural (Nouns & Adjectives)

 

Italian nouns and adjectives are different than the English ones, The Italian noun and adjective take 4 forms, usually nouns & adjectives take “o” at the end of the singular masculine, and “a” for singular feminine, for plural masculine “i”, plural feminine take “e”.

 

Italian Singular to Plural

 

Singular masculine

Singular feminine

Plural masculine

Plural feminine

Small

Child/ Children

Piccolo

Bambino

Piccola

Bambina

Piccoli

Bambini

Piccole

Bambine

 

However, it’s not always the case, some nouns and adjectives ending with “e” for example only change to their plural, the feminine or masculine doesn’t matter to them.

 

Italian Singular to Plural

 

Singular masculine

Singular feminine

Plural masculine

Plural feminine

Big

Restaurant

Night

Grande

Ristorante

--

Grande

--

Notte

Grandi

Ristoranti

--

Grandi

--

Notti

 

Other exceptions are:

Nouns and adjectives ending in ~co/~ca and ~go/~ga are spelt ~chi/~che and ~ghi/~ghe in the plural; these modifications are made simply to maintain the same sound in the plural as well as the singular.

 

 

Singular masculine

Singular feminine

Plural masculine

Plural feminine

White

Rich

Mushroom

Lines

Bianco

Ricco

Fungo

Bianca

Ricca

--

Riga

Bianchi

Ricchi

Funghi

Bianche

Ricche

--

Righe

 

 

The definite Articles

 

In Italian the English “the” is expressed in a more specific way.

 

Italian Definite Articles

Masculine

Singular à Plural

Feminine

Singular à Plural

il à i [il bambino (the child) à i bambini (the children]

lo à gli (used only before word starting with sc/sp/st/gn/z) [lo stato (the state) à gli stati (the states)]

l’ à gli [used only before vowels l’uomo (the man) à gli uomini (men)]

la à le [la donna (the woman) à le donne (women)]

l’ à le [used only before vowels, l’isola (the island) à le isole (the islands)]

 

The indefinite Articles

 

Italian Indefinite Articles

Masculine Singular

Feminine Singular

Un (a book = un libro)

Uno (used only before word starting with sc/sp/st/gn/z) example:

          (a student = uno studente)

Una (a woman = una donna)

Un’ (used only before feminine nouns with a vowel, instead for masculine nouns with a vowel it’s used Un) example:

        (a friend = un’amica) Feminine

        (a friend = un amico) Masculine

        (a plane = un aereo) Masculine

 

As you know, the indefinite article doesn’t have plural in English, but in Italian there is a close way to express it, in English it is expressed by “some”

A book à books (no article) or some books. Un libro à libri or dei libri (you will learn later how to use the form “del”)

 

Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers:

 

Italian Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers are simple and easy to learn:

 

Italian Numbers

Cardinal Numbers

Ordinal Numbers

1 = Uno

11 = Undici

21 = Ventuno

87 = Ottantasette

1st  = Primo

For ordinal numbers after 10 you only need to delete the last vowel and add~esimo.

11th = Undicesimo

12th = Dodicesimo

20th = Ventesimo

 

2 = Due

12 = Dodici

22 = Ventidue

98 = Novantotto

2nd  = Secondo

3 = Tre

13 = Tredici

23 = Ventitre

100 = Cento

3rd  = Terzo

4 = Quattro

14 = Quattordici

30 = Trenta

1000 = Mille

4th  = Quarto

5 = Cinque

15 = Quindici

31 = Trentuno

2006 = Duemilasei

5th  = Quinto

6 = Sei

16 = Sedici

32 = Trentadue

A number ending with a vowel + a number starting with a vowel =  1st one loses it’s vowel example: ventuno 21

6th  = Sesto

7 = Sette

17 = Diciassette

43 = Quarantatre

7th  = Settimo

8 = Otto

18 = Diciotto

54 = Cinquantaquattro

8th  = Ottavo

9 = Nove

19 = Diciannove

65 = Sessantacinque

9th  = Nono

10 = Dieci

20 = Venti

76 = Settantasei

10th = Decimo

 

 

Telling the time in Italian

 

Time in Italian

Che ore sono? (what time is it?)

01:00 = È l’una

10:45 = Sono le undici meno un quarto

02:00 = Sono le due

12:00 = Sono le dodici

03:05 = Sono le tre e cinque

È mezzogiorno = It’s midday

04:10 = Sono le quattro e dieci

È mezzanotte = It’s midnight

05:15 = Sono le cinque e un quarto

Note that all time expressions start with sono, except one and twelve o’clock, they both start with è.

06:20 = Sono le sei e venti

07:30 = Sono le sette e mezza/trenta

 

 

Writing training: write the same text I wrote about myself at the beginning of this page, but this time it should be about you.

Speaking training: try to read the text you just wrote about yourself out loud, if you find any difficulty, take a look at the Italian alphabet table.

 

The Italian Alphabet

 

Italian Alphabet

Aa as in the word “ask” and never as in the word “able”

Bb same as in English

Cc like “tsh” before “i” or “e”, otherwise like "k” in Creole.

Dd same as in English

Ee as in “elevated”

Ff same as in English

Gg like the "dg", before “i” or “e”, otherwise like the "g" in "Good".

Hh silent most of the time.

Ii as in the word “ink” never as in the word “island”

Jj as in “Job”, or the “s” of “pleasure”.

Kk same as in English

Ll same as in English

Mm same as in English

Nn same as in English

Oo same as in English “Old”.

Pp same as in English

Qq same as in English

Rr Spanish “r”

Ss between vowels as “z”, and as “s” otherwise.

Tt same as in English not as sharp. 

Uu as in the “ultra”, never as in the word “up” or “university” 

Vv same as in English

Ww as in English, sometimes as “v”

Xx same as in English

Yy same as in English although rare.

Zz as in “ts”, or “dz”.

 

cc as “tshee” before “i” and “e”, or as “kee” elsewhere.

ch like “k” as in “kid”.

gg as in “dgee” before “I” and “e”, or as the “gee” in “geese”.

gh like “g” in “God”

gli as in “gli”

gn like “n” in “news”

qu like “kw” in “quest”

sc like “sh” before “i” and “e”, or like “k” elsewhere.

 

Note that J- K- W- X- Y appear mainly in foreign loan words.

 

 

Some expressions to read and try to memorize:

 

Italian Expressions

A Happy New Year

Buon Anno Nuovo

After you

Dopo di lei

All right

Va bene / Tutto bene

All the best!

Tante buone cose!

And You?

E tu? E lei? (polite)

Are you  hungry/thirsty.?

Ha/Hai/Avete  fame/sete?

Are you sure?

Sei sicuro/a?

At your service

A sua disposizione

August 15 wish

Buon Ferragosto

Be careful

Attento/a/i/e or Stai/state attento/i

Be happy

Sii felice (singolar) / Siate felici (plural)

Be my guest

Faccia pure

Be strong

Sii forte / Sia forte (polite)

Best wishes

Tanti auguri

Big/ Small

Grosso or Grande/ Piccolo

Bless you (after sneezing)

Salute!

Bravo

Bravo/a/i/e

Call back later.

Richiami più tardi.

Can I have five kilos of potatoes.

Posso avere cinque chili di patate?

Can I Help You?

Posso aiutarti?/ Posso aiutarla (polite)?

Can I smoke here?

Posso fumare qui?

Can You Help Me?

Potresti aiutarmi?/ potrebbe aiutarmi? (polite)

Can You Say It Again?

Potresti ripetere per favore?/ Potrebbe ripetere per favore? (polite)

Can You Speak Slowly?

Puoi parlare lentamente? Potrebbe parlare lentamente? (polite)

Cheer up!

Ànimo!

Cheers!

Salute!

Cloudy

È nuvoloso

Come in

Venga dentro

Come on!

Dai! / Su!

Come With Me!

Vieni con me!/ Venga con me! (polite)

Congratulations!

Congratulazioni!/ Felicitazioni

Damn it

Dannazione

Dear Maria/Riccardo, (friendly)

Cara/o  Maria/Riccardo, ...

Dear Mr Giovanni,

Caro signor Giovanni,

Did You Like It Here?

Ti piace qui?

Did you sleep well?

Ha/Hai/Avete dormito bene?

Do as you please. Be my guest

Si accomodi, prego. E’ mio ospite

Do you like coffee?

Le/Ti/Vi  piace il caffè?

Do You Like It?

Ti piace?

Do you mind my... smoking?

Le spiace se... fumo?

Do you need help?

Ha/Hai  bisogno di aiuto?

Do You Speak (English/ Italian)?

Parli (inglese/italiano)?/ Parla (inglese/italiano)? (polite)

Do your best

Fai del tuo meglio

Does it bother you if ...?

Disturbo se ...?

Doesn't matter

Fa lo stesso / Non importa

Don't mention it

Come non detto

Don't Worry!

Non ti preoccupare!

Enjoy your vacation

Buone vacanze

Enjoy! (For meals…)

Buon appetito!

Enough!

Basta!

 

 

 

Italian Irregular Verbs (present tense)

 

These are some common irregular verbs that you might come across very often: (stare, volere, sapere, potere, dare, fare, dovere, tenere, venire), please memorize them by heart, because they don’t follow any regular rule and also because they’re used very often.

 

Italian Irregular Verbs

 

Stare

(to be)

Volere

(to want)

Sapere

(to know)

Potere

(can)

Dare

(to give)

Dovere

(to have to)

Fare

(to do)

Tenere

(to have)

Venire

(to come)

Andare

(to go)

Dire

(to say)

Io

Tu

Lui

Noi

Voi

Loro

Sto

Stai

Sta

Stiamo

State

Stanno

Voglio

Vuoi

Vuole

Vogliamo

Volete

Vogliono

So

Sai

Sa

Sappiamo

Sapete

Sanno

Posso

Puoi

Può

Possiamo

Potete

Possono

Do

Dai

Diamo

Date

Danno

Devo

Devi

Deve

Dobbiamo

Dovete

Devono

Faccio

Fai

Fa

Facciamo

Fate

Fanno

Tengo

Tieni

Tiene

Teniamo

Tenete

Tengono

Vengo

Vieni

Viene

Veniamo

Venite

Vengono

Vado

Vai

Va

Andiamo

Andate

Vanno

Dico

Dici

Dice

Diciamo

Dite

Dicono

 

The verb “Stare” means to be or to stay, and used a lot in many idiomatic expressions.

-Come stai? (how are you?) -Sto bene, grazie (I'm fine, thanks). Stare is used also as a gerund referring to an action in progress: sto imparando l’italiano. (I’m learning Italian)

Potere (to be able to, can), Dovere (to have to), Volere (to want) are modal verbs as well as irregular verbs.

These are some examples of the verbs on the top:

 

Sto leggendo il giornale (I’m reading the newspaper)

Voglio visitare Roma (I want to visit Rome)

Non lo so! (I don’t know!)

Posso aiutarti? (can I help you?)

Noi vi diamo il libro gratis (we give you the book for free)

Devi parlare in italiano. (you have to speak in Italian)

Che fai oggi pomeriggio? (what are you doing this afternoon?)

Tengo un libro in mano (I have a book in my hand)

Vieni oggi Jennifer? (are you coming today Jennifer?)

Oggi vado con la mia famiglia a mangiare fuori (today I go with my family to eat outside)

Ti dico che sono d’accordo con te (I tell you I agree with you)

 

Italian Reflexive Verbs

 

Italian reflexive verbs are used to express an action applied to oneself, I wash myself = io mi lavo

They’re easy to form, just place (mi, ti, si, ci, vi, si) before the verb that is considered a reflexive verb.

Io mi lavo (I wash myself), tu ti lavi (you wash yourself)... lui si lava, noi ci laviamo, voi si lavate, loro si lavano.

Italian Reflexive Verbs are used more often than in English; sometimes you can use a reflexive verb in Italian but not in English:

io mi chiamo Roberto = my name is Robert (literally I call myself Robert)

 

Italian Direct Object (not after preposition): almost the same as the ones you just saw in the Italian reflexive verbs (mi, ti, lo/ la, ci, vi, le), the difference is in the blue font (3rd person singular and plural).

Lui mi dice (he tells me), io ti dico (I tell you), io lo/ la vedo (I see him/her), lui ci dice (he tells us), io vi dico (I tell you all), lui le vede (he sees them)

 

Writing training: write the same conversation which was between Speak7 and Maria, but this time you and an imaginary person, try to look up info that you don’t know their translation in Italian, apply some of the grammar you learned, and see how it goes J

Speaking training: try to read the conversation you just wrote out loud, train yourself well, you might need that for a real conversation in the future.

 

 

 

This table has some useful expression that might help you expend your knowledge of Italian:

 

 

Italian Expressions

Exactly!

Esattamente!

Excellent!

Òttimo!

Excuse Me ...! ( to ask for something)

Scusami!/ Mi scusi! (polite)

Excuse Me! ( to pass by)

Permesso!

Four, Five, Six.

Quattro, Cinque, Sei.

Give Me This!

Dammi questo!

Go ahead!

Sotto!/ Vai avanti!/ Vada avanti! Passi pure!

Go on!

Avanti!

Go Straight! Then Turn Left/ Right!

Vada dritto! Poi giri a sinistra/destra!

Good Bye!

Arrivederci!

Good evening

Buonasera

Good Luck!

Buona fortuna!

Good Morning!

Buongiorno!

Good night

Buonanotte

Good Night & Sweet Dreams!

Buona notte e sogni d'oro!

Good/ Bad/ So-So.

Buono/ Cattivo/ Così e così

Good/ So-So.

Bene/ così e così.

Goodbye

Arrivederci

Hands up!

Mani in alto!

Happy Birthday!

Buon compleanno!

Happy Easter

Buona Pasqua

Happy Holidays!

Buone feste! / buone vacanze!

Happy New Year!

Felice anno nuovo!/ Buon Capodanno

Have a good holiday!

Buona vacanza!

Have a good stay

Buona permanenza

Have a good time/ Enjoy yourself

Buon divertimento! / Divertiti!

Have a good trip/ journey

Buon viaggio.

Hello!

Pronto!

Hello, Bye

Ciao

Hello, who's this?

Pronto, chi parla?

Here is / Here are...

Ecco...

Here You Go! (when giving something)

Eccolo!

Hey! Friend!

Ciao! Amico!

Hey, you

Ehi là / ehi tu

Hi!

Ciao!

Hold On Please! (phone)

Attenda prego! (al telefono)

How Are You?

Come stai?/ Come state (polite)?

How boring!

Che barba! Che noia!

How do you feel?

Come si sente?

How Do You Say "Please" In Italian?

Come dite “please” in italiano? – Please = Per favore

How far is it to Milano (from here)?

Quanto dista Milano (da qui)?

How long are you staying here?

Per quanto tempo   si ferma/ti fermi/vi fermate  qui?

How long have you been here?

Da quanto tempo   è/sei/siete   qui?

How Much Is This?

Quanto costa questo?

How Old Are You?

Quanti anni hai?

How's going?

Come va?/ Come te la passi?

Hurry Up!

Sbrigati!/ Faccia presto!

I beg your pardon. Sorry.

Le chiedo scusa. Mi dispiace /Scusi

I Don't Know!

Non lo so!

I don't remember

Non ricordo.

 

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