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This page contains information about:: Gerund in Italian, Imperative, Italian Adverbs, and some Expressions.


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Level I

Lesson1: Italian Present Tense, Plural, Articles, Italian Numbers, Alphabet

Lesson2: Italian Irregular Verbs, Italian Reflexive Verbs

Lesson3: Italian Past Participle, Comparative, Superlative, Demonstrative Pronouns

Lesson4: Italian Past Tense, Present Perfect, Interrogative, Possessive, Pronouns

Lesson5: Italian Prepositions, Model Verbs, Italian Future Tense

Lesson6: Italian Adjectives, Negation, Past Perfect in Italian

Lesson7: Italian Gerund Imperative and Adverbs

Level II

Lesson1: Italian Past Tense, Imperfetto, Perfect, and Remote Past

Lesson2: Conditional, Italian Idioms and Proverbs

Lesson3: Subjunctive, More Italian Idioms, Proverbs, and Essential Dictionary

Lesson4: Italian Conjunctions, Italian Ci and Ne, and More Italian Vocabulary

Lesson5: Surviving in Italy, Eating, Drinking in Italy. More Italian Words To Know.

Lesson6: Getting Around Italy Transport, Italian Trains, Buses, and Traffic

Lesson7: Italian False Friends, Wrong Italian Words in English

Italian Expressions

Emergency in Italy

Hotel, Museum, Guided Tour, Shopping

Sentence Quiz

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Italian Lesson 7

Gerund in Italian

 

The gerund is easy to form, for (~are) verbs just add~ando to their stem, for (~ere, ~ire) verbs add ~endo to their stem.

Parlare: parlando (talking), credere: credendo (believing), partire: partendo (going).

 

Present continuous/ Past continuous/ Future continuous can be formed easily with the verb “stare” + verb + gerund.

To form a continuous action you need to add the verb “stare” and not “essere”

 

Italian Gerund

Present continuous (I’m …ing)

Past continuous (I was ...ing)

Future continuous (I will be ...ing)

sto pensando/ credendo

stai pensando/ credendo

sta pensando/ credendo

stiamo pensando/ credendo

state pensando/ credendo

stanno pensando/ credendo

stavo pensando/ credendo

stavi pensando/ credendo

stava pensando/ credendo

stavamo pensando/ credendo

stavate pensando/ credendo

stavano pensando/ credendo

starò pensando/ credendo

starai pensando/ credendo

starà pensando/ credendo

staremo pensando/ credendo

starete pensando/ credendo

staranno pensando/ credendo

 

Che cosa stavi pensando? non stavo pensando.(what were you thinking? I wasn’t thinking)

There are however some rare cases where the gerund is irregular like: dire (dicendo), fare (facendo), porre (ponendo), tradurre (traducendo).

Che cosa stai facendo? Sto pensando (what are you doing? I’m thinking).

 

 

Italian Imperative

 

It’s easy to form the imperative especially with “tu” and “Lei”, you just need to switch them in the case of (~are) verbs, for example in the present tense we say:

“tu parli” informal of (you speak) and (Lei parla) formal of (you speak), in the imperative you just need to switch them.

“parla!” means “speak!” informal, “parli!” means “speak!” formal.

For (~ere, ~ire) the affirmative second person singular is identical to the second person singular form of the present tense.

For all conjugations (are/ere/ire), the second person plural (voi) is identical to the second person plural form of the present tense.

Check out the table below, it will explain it all:

 

Italian Imperative

 

parlare

vendere

aprire

finire

tu

Lei

noi

voi

parla

parli

parliamo

parlate

vendi

venda

vendiamo

vendete

apri

apra

apriamo

aprite

finisci

finisca

finiamo

finite

 

Negative commands are usually expressed in Italian with non followed by the infinitive verb. For example:

Don't eat! (non mangiare!)

No smoking! (non fumare!)

Adverbs in Italian (avverbi)

 

An adjective can be made into an adverb by simply adding -mente to the adjective example: veloce "quick" becomes velocemente "quickly”.

There are exceptions that are easy to understand:

Adding “mente” to adjectives that their feminine singular is ending with “a”, example: lenta "slow" becomes lentamente "slowly". 

If an adjective ends in -ale, -ile, or -are, the adverb is formed with the root of the adjective plus the ending -mente.

 

Italian Adverbs

Adjectives (general)

Adjective (feminine)

Adverb

veloce

lento

gentile

facile

speciale

veloce

lenta

gentile

facile

speciale

velocemente (quickly)

lentamente (slowly)

gentilmente (kindly)

facilmente (easily)

specialmente (specially)

 

The table below contains adverbs that don’t come from adjectives; they’re used very often so try to memorize them.

 

List of Italian Adverbs

Above: sopra

Against: contro

Already: già

Always: sempre

Around: attorno

Badly: male

Behind: dietro

Beyond: oltre

in, inside: dentro

Moreover: inoltre

Nearby: vicino

Outside: fuori

Soon: presto

Still: ancora

Then: dopo / poi

Together: insieme

Below: sotto

Well: bene

 

This is a list of some very important verbs in Italian:

 

Italian Expressions

to abandon oneself

abbandonarsi

to accept

accettare

to admit

ammettere

to affirm

affermare

to agree

convenire

to agree

accondiscéndere

to announce

annunciare

to apply oneself to

méttersi

to appreciate

gradire

to ask

chiedere

to ask

domandare

to aspire

aspirare

to assure

assicurare

to attempt

tentare

to avoid

evitare

to avoid

tralasciare

to be able to

essere in grado

to be able to, can

potere

to be about

accìngersi

to be ashamed

Avere vergogna

to be ashamed of

Vergognarsi di

to be concerned with

occuparsi

to be eager for

anelare / essere ansiosi per

to be exhausted

non poterne più / essere esausti

to be happy

essere lieto

to be happy

essere contento

to be happy

essere felice

to be in a hurry

avere fretta

to be in the position of

essere nella posizione di

to be interested in

interessarsi

to be late

tardare

to be on the point of

avviarsi

to be proud

essere fiero

to be saddened

dispiacersi

to be sorry

dolersi

to begin

iniziare

to believe

credere

to believe

ritenere

to carry on

proseguire

to come

venire

to communicate

comunicare

to compel

obbligare

to complain

lamentarsi

to condemn

condannare

to confess

confessare

to confirm

confermare

to consent

acconsentire

to continue

continuare

to convince

persuadere

to dare

osare

to dare

arrischiarsi

to decide

decidere

to decide

decidersi

to declare

dichiarare

to defend

sostenere

to delude oneself

illudersi

to demonstrate

dimostrare

to devote oneself

darsi

to do one's best

ingegnarsi

to doubt

dubitare

to dream

sognare

to encourage

incoraggiare

to encourage

incoraggiare

to end by

finire

to establish

stabilire

to exclude

escludere

to expect

aspettarsi

to fantasize

fantasticare

to fantasize

fantasticare

to fear

avere paura

to feel

avere l'impressione

to feel like

sentirsela

to force

costrìngere

to force

obbligare

to forget

dimenticare

to forget about something

lasciar perdere

to get ready

apprestarsi

to get ready

dispórsi

to get tired of something

stancarsi

to get tired of

stancarsi

to get used to

abituarsi

to go

andare

to go back

tornare

to go on

seguitare

to guess

indovinare

to have a good time

divertirsi

to have difficulty

stentare

to have in mind

ripromettersi

to have the right

avere il diritto

to have to

dovere

to hazard

azzardare

to hazard

azzardarsi

to help

aiutare

to hint

accennare

to hope

augurarsi

to hope

sperare

to hurry up

affrettarsi

to hurry up

sbrigarsi

to ignore

ignorare

to inform

informare

to insist

insìstere

to intend

avere intenzione

to intend

intendere

to invite

invitare

to invite

invitare

to know

sapere

to know

sapere

to learn

apprèndere

to learn

imparare

to limit oneself

limitarsi

to long for

ambire

to love

amare

to narrate

narrare

to need

avere bisogno

to need, to feel like

avere voglia

to negate

negare

to neglect

trascurare

to oblige

costrìngere

to offer

offrire

to pass

passare

to persist

ostinarsi

to persist

persìstere

to plan

proporsi

to prefer

preferire

to prepare oneself

acconciarsi

to prepare oneself

prepararsi

to pretend

fingere

to promise

promettere

to propose

proporre

to realize

accòrgersi

to realize

rendersi conto

to recognize

riconoscere

to refuse

rifiutarsi

to regret

pentirsi

to regret

rimpiangere

to remember

ricordare

to remember

ricordarsi

to renounce

rinunciare

to repeat

ripetere

to report

riferire

to resign oneself

rassegnarsi

to risk

rischiare

to run

córrere

to say

dire

to scream

spolmonarsi

to send

mandare

to start

attaccare

to start

cominciare

to start

incominciare

to start

prèndere

to start over

riprèndere

to stay

stare

to stop

smettere

to stop

cessare

to stop

smettere

to stop

fermarsi

to stop, to end

finire

to succeed

riuscire

to suffer

soffrire

to suppose

supporre

to suspect

sospettare

to swear

giurare

to tell

raccontare

to tend

tèndere

to thank

ringraziare

to think

pensare

to think

avere idea

to think of

pensare

to threaten

minacciare

to to be a question of

trattarsi

to try

cercare

to try

provare

to try

provarsi

to understand

capire

to undertake

intraprèndere

to value, to care

tenérci

to wait

attendere

to wait

aspettare

to want

volere

to wish

desiderare

to wonder

meravigliarsi

to wonder

stupirsi

to worry

preoccuparsi

to yearn for

agognare

 

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